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Brilliant essays on Greek drama the Hebrew Bible applying Ren Girard s mimetic theory For my thoughts on mimetic theory see my blog Imaginary Visions of True Peace at Goodhart is an accomplished literary critic who writes like a novelist when he
Argues His Points His Arguments Unfold Gradually his points His arguments unfold gradually a plot in a novel Goodhart ollows and implements to a certain extent Ren Girard s thesis that literature and to a large extent our culture including Christianity show the central role of the sacrificial violence and the way out of it by demystifying it in terms of rituals and sanctifications demystification in the sense of annulment or sublation 100 102 103 04 106 138 199 201 Goodhart ollows Girard only to an extent and stops He stops where Girard goes on to argue that the violence perpetuates despite the demystification within the and the culture How is Girard s latter part of the thesis Following Levinas Goodhart inds the way latter part of the thesis overcome Following Levinas Goodhart Coborîrea de pe cruce finds the way of the perpetual cycle of violence byinding ethical practices in Judaism specifically in the Torah Thus literary criticism or commentary must stop so as to stop the violence perpetuated within literature and our culture despite demystification Hence Goodhart situates himself at the end of literature and hopes to usher it in by exercising what he would call a prophetic reading Matematik Startbok from within the text a kind of reading that will actualize in life and culture what one reads in a performative sense Commentary or criticism too must be sacrificed or given up so as to stop the perpetuation of violenceor moving into ethical practice embedded in the two thousand years of Jewish practice of reading the text of the Torah the ethical practice or subjectivity that Emmanuel Levinas proposes to be responsible To Conuer Hell The Meuse Argonne 1918 for the other humans Goodhart thus proposes displacing criticism with ethics text with ethical life Hence the book title Sacrificing Commentary Reading the End of Literature If as Goodhart shows along with Girard the story of Oedipus Rex and Richard II stage the ambiguity if not the absurdity of the logic of the sacrificial violence that perpetuates within those stories themselves despite staging the demystification thereof Goodhart demonstrates by also staging that the Hebrew Bible the story of Joseph the Ten Commandments the story of Jonah and the Book of Job in contrast tells us to stop and give up the way of the perpetual violence committed in the name of sacrifice and its demystification A midrashic story told by Gershom Scholem as in turn retold by Goodhart in this regard is instructive a Talmudic scholar is sitting in his study reading Talmud and he suddenly sees himself sitting in his study reading Talmud He comes in other words to see his own double to recognize himself in the other to recognize the other as himself Moreover he understands that other as his own past or his ownuture the road he is already traveling And having had this vision he comes Gardasil finally at the critical moment to distance himselfrom it He ictionalizes it He tells a story about it a midrash 120 21Notice the M bius strip at work here which Goodhart employs at crucial juncture of each of his analyses of the aforementioned texts 118 156 196 etc The inside of the midrashic story told here leads to the outside like the M bius strip As the story goes the Talmud one is reading shows the reader s own past and uture the road he has taken and where it is leading All this is in turn taken up to be told as yet another story like the commentaries that surround the Torah where the boundary between Torah and the commentaries thereof is blurred This blurring becomes effective Period Power for the entire Tanakh the Jewish Bible Inact the whole Bible is an extension of the Torah 124 Thus the Books of the Prophets the wisdom books the Talmud etc are but an extension of the Torah In Half a Wife fact the rabbis believe that the whole universe is an extension of the Torah because as they like to say the Torah existed before the creation 198 or that it serves as the blueprint of the world 131 198 There is thus no distinction between the inside and the outside of the text We have never been outside of the text 118 Just as the literature demythologizes the sacrificial violence so as to perpetuate violence Girard s thesis the Biblical texts on the other hand pull us out of the world of violence by theorce of the Torah which is a teaching that says in essence I am the LORD your God who brought you In Sacrificing Commentary Sandor Goodhart proposes a new view of literary reading arguing that the writing we have designated as literary is in Mud and Stars fact aorm of commentary or critical reading In the case of our most important cultural documents Shakespeare Culture del Giappone contemporaneo for instance or Sophocles this commentary remains our most powerful inuiry into uestions of reading aesthetics violence and ethical responsibilityTo support his argument Goodhart offers a close analysis of Sophocles's Oedipus Tyrannus Shakespeare's Richard IIour passages rom the Hebrew Torah the story of Jo.
Sandor Goodhart Í 9 DownloadOm Essays on Judaism 144 in Goodhart s translation as uoted in his book 180 181 194 To be a Jew in turn means to be responsible or God s creation Thus to live in accord with God s Law in this account says Goodhart to live according to the law of anti idolatry is to participate in God s creative act to create the world as God did via Torah 198 The so called problem of evil is overcome by redeeming act of repentance negatively and by becoming responsible Del big bang al homo sapiens for the evil one did not commit positively in short to be responsible as Levinas puts itor what was neither one s self nor one s work Transcendence and Evil in Of God Who Comes to Mind 133 or again to uote Levinas to substitute oneself Sudagar Batik for others which is the uality that defines Job s uprightness temimut Nine Talmudic Readings by Emmanuel Levinas 49 as uoted in Goodhart s 168 211 Goodhart thus concludesWe are interested in reading today because the condition of our contemporary being is the Holocaust and post Holocaustal reading is aorm of ethical practice one that shares certain similarities with the ethical practice exercised Os Peuenos Jangadeiros for than two thousand years as the reading of the Hebrew Torah and one that has as its end or goal witness the ownership of one s responsibilityor the other individual 276I ask Is prophetic reading that leads to ethical practice possible in any great texts outside the Hebrew Bible be it the New Testament or any other texts of the world s great religions Goodhart leaves a room or Eastern religions 203 More specifically is ethical practice possible in the Christian liturgy which imitates if not seek to revive the Jewish sacrifice or the ritual of atonement Goodhart was surprised in
our recent conversation by how similar the Catholic liturgy was to therecent conversation by how similar the Catholic liturgy was to the liturgy except of course or the Eucharist If we are at the end of literature and if commentary must be sacrificed what next If practicing ethical life ie being responsible Les Cendres de la victoire: Honor Harrington, T9 for the other humans is integrally associated with Judaism and if we are thus to live like the Jews the people of the book how is the Jewish life to continue at the end of literature and commentary Must we abandon literature and take up the study of Torah Shall we continue the Talmudic tradition of commenting on the Torah and thus living the Torah Once again theollowing Jewish wisdom that refuses to separate the study of the Torah with living is instructiveThese are things that are limitlessof which a person enjoys the Maria Callas a Greek Myth B fruit of the worldwhile the principal remains in the world to comeThey are honoring one sather and motherengaging in deeds of compassionarriving early El almacén de las palabras terribles for study morning and eveningdealing graciously with guests visiting the sickprovidingor the wedding coupleaccompanying the dead or burialbeing devoted in prayerand making peace among peopleBut the study of Torah encompasses them allMishkan T Filah A Reformed Siddur New York Central Conference of American Rabbis 2007 88Lastly is not Logos who was with God and was God in the beginning John 11 in act the Law incarnate Logos perhaps should be translated as the Law in John s Gospel Goodhart sees that both Jews and Christians can arrive at an agreement in the ollowing summation of the Law that was offered by Jesus himself You shall love the LORD your God with Jesus himself You shall love the LORD your God with your heart and all your soul Deut 65 cf Goodhart s 138 Matt 2237 Mark 1230 Luke 1027 Christians and Jews can also join in agreement in the verse that precedes it Hear O Israel The LORD is our God the LORD alone Deut 64 which is a repeat of the First Commandment itself Ex 202 But Goodhart objects the displacement of the word of god that is of the Word of God that is with another is a stumbling block 138 his italics Incarnation is the problem But did not Levinas use the exactly the same word to designate the ethical self as substitution Levinas it would appear then is Christian than he or Goodhart would acknowledge This is to say both Jesus and Paul I propose were the proto Levinasians Notwithstanding and despite the undeniable atrocities the Cross represented or the Jews and Muslims in history and politics in the past and present both Judaism and Christianity at bottom is one religion nonetheless The difference seems to lie in which way one nudges the core toward the old or the new where the term the new does not necessarily mean better or improved beyond and despite the rhetoric of the new wine and the old wineskins in the synoptic Gospels Matt 917 Mark 222 Luke 537. Ary texts they model and whose perspectives they would usurpExploring themes introduced in his well known essay on Oedipus Goodhart concludes that literature is best understood as an interpretation of criticism The demystifications provided by critics are often recreations of the myths that literary texts attempt to expose Others have suggested as much but have not pursued the issue as he and Ren Girard do to the oundations of Western thought His dialogic relation to Girard illuminates both the Judaic and Christiantraditions Wallace Martin University of Toled. Ut of the land of Egypt out of the house of bondage
Ex 202 Italics Added202 italics added is in this First Commandment a teaching rather than an imperative that contains all the rest of the Ten Commandments and it is urther in the unpronounceable name of God that contains all of the Ten Commandments as the Kabbalists are قنبرعلی fond of saying 137 Because the essence of the Jewish Law isor Goodhart summed up in anti idolatrism which is to say in a call of God to live otherwise than by the being of the sacrificial structures of the worlds in which Judaism appeared 202 Goodhart Writes At The writes at of his book with a clear reference to LevinasIn Judaism at the altar before the ark of the covenant in the place where older cultures would identify a sacrificial victim one discovers a text a teaching a torah which speaks anti sacrificially of that victimage Awakening Ariella James An Abriya Clarence Series Spin off Book 1 from one end to the other In place of sacrificing a victim one intones or recites or reads this text which is taken itself as the trace of an encounter with the infinitely Other and as such theoundation of ethical response xiii xivFor Goodhart Levinas provides the ultimate point of reference because Levinas enables him to overcome Girard s pessimism or nihilism that in demystifying the sacrificial violence the western culture ends up perpetuating the violence Judaism enable to stop the cycle of violence and to give up its logic by the Law that commands in essence Stop repent and become responsible La Gouvernance par les nombres for what you are not and what you have not created The impetus to stop and to give up comesrom the Biblical texts that ultimately boil down to the saying of the First Commandment I am the LORD your God and thus abandon the ways of idolatries of the world The strongest argument that appears at the center of the book comes La Gouvernance par les nombres from Goodhart s brilliant analysis of the Book of Job It is crucial to understand as Goodhard successfully shows that the Book of Job is not about the problem of evil and that Job is not much differentrom his three visiting Grabbed by Vicious Grabbed friends who attempt to explain the origin of evil through a system of causality or ofree will Levinas s interpretation of Job is Superhero Nutrition followed here wholeheartedly cf Of God Who Comes to Mind 133 Nine Talmudic Readings by Emmanuel Levinas 48 49 Otherwise Than Being or Beyond Essence 122 Job complains about his banishmentrom his community like a victim in the mode that Girard describes Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World Her Cowboy's Triplets (The Boones of Texas) from the community where he was respected and where he dwelt as a king in the army as one that comforteth the mourners Job 2921 25 301 8 10 29 as uoted in Goodhart s 183 84 In the end however Job turnsrom his way of thinking and repents In the Coalport, 1795-1926: An Introduction to the History and Porcelains of John Rose and Company face of God in response to God s prophetic presentation 205 italics added he overcomes his problem and acknowledges But now mine eye seeth Thee Wherefore I abhor my words and repent Seeing I am dust and ashes Job 426 as uoted in Goodhart s 205 His so called problem of evil becomes small in comparison to the magnitude of God the Creator Creation is larger than justice God says to him 201 It is not that Jobelt sorry La memoria degli Uffizi for his complaints which is otherwise legitimate His repentance teshuvah another key termor Goodhard as it is in Judaism involves stopping shavat All for the Union The Civil War Diary Letters of Elisha Hunt Rhodes from which we have Sabbath and giving up the way his threeriends were thinking in Sostiene Pereira fact the way of Satan the term satan means accuser who unlike Job does not stop accusing God cf 164 65 207 Repentance says Goodhart is the regenerativeorce par excellence in Judaism and therefore appropriate to the one day Yom Kippur the day of repentance or atonement ordained since creation Psychological Strategy in Contract Bridge The Techniues of Deception and Harassment in Bidding and Play for purificationor the separation of light Vocabulaire juridique from darkness 165 cf 143 hence the Book of Jonah is read in the ritual of Yom Kippur Goodhart writesAfter posing these uestions what is reuired of Job is that he give up insisting upon the sanctity of his own position that he humble himself before the condition of his own possibility indeed the condition of the possibility of the universe itself and return to the way of God 209At this point of Goodhart s argument Levinas becomes decisive uotingrom Levinas s 1955 essay Loving the Torah More Than God Goodhard argues that the issue of suffering is not a uestion of justice the metaphysical uestion but of being a Jew It is at this point Goodhart cites Levinas The suffering of the just or a justice that is without triumph is lived concretely as Judaism Difficult Freed. Seph and his brothers the ten commandments the story of Jonah and the story of Job and a talk given shortly after the war by Yiddish poet and playwright Halpern Leivick Goodhart concludes that criticism as we know it within a ormal academic humanities setting Adventures Blizzards and Coastal Calamities farrom expounding the critical reading a given work makes available to us often acts out or repeats the very structures or conflicts which are its subject matter As a result the most powerful Maledictions forms of commentary upon our myth making capacities may beound less in these critical texts than in the liter.